Listening–A Tool for Resolving Conflict
- Having a difficulty with another person?
- Having a hard time being understood and being heard?
Continually we find conflict resolution experts recommending that we should first try to listen and understand the other person before we will be understood and listened to.
Below you will find suggestions from some experts.
Listening Defuses Conflict
When done effectively, listening to try to understand another person . . .
— stops arguments and defuse strong emotions,
— helps the other person feel heard,
— helps the other person to listen to you,
— helps you persuade the other person,
— improves relationships.
“One of the most common complaints we hear from people engaged in difficult conversations is that the other person won’t listen. And when we hear that our standard advice is ‘You need to spend more time listening to them.’ . . . The reason the other person is not listening to you is not because they are stubborn, but because they don’t feel heard.” (Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton, and Sheila Heen, New York: Penguin Books, 2000, p.166-168.)
“Not all listening promotes effective communication. The type of listening that breeds connection is almost always related to a genuine desire to understand what others are trying to communicate. Listening, even if focused and energetic, that is mostly motivated by desire to debate, argue, convince, or discount, is likely to lead to further conflict and distance.” (Bernard Mayer, The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner’s Guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 2000, p. 156-157, 127.)
“Seek first to understand, then to be understood. . . . To feel understood is the deepest psychological need. . . . Understanding comes through listening. . . . Most people listen with the intent to respond instead of listening with the intent to understand.” (Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, Training Manual, p.123-128)
Barriers to Listening
Larry K. Langlois, a marriage and family counselor from Pasadena, California, gives the following do’s and don’ts to effective listening (“When Couples Don’t Listen to Each Other,” Ensign, Sept. 1989, 16):
— Being judgmental: The fastest way to stop a person from talking, especially about painful and difficult subjects, is to criticize him.
— Confusing understanding with agreement: Understanding what someone is saying doesn’t mean that you agree with him. Whether you agree is not the issue in the listening process.
— Confusing listening with discussing: Listening is a one-way process; it involves hearing and understanding a message that another person is conveying. Discussing, on the other hand, is a two-way interchange of ideas. While discussion involves listening skills, the art of listening is important in its own right and must sometimes be used alone. . . . Effective listening requires full attention, rather than the rapid switching between listening and talking that is involved in discussion. This rapid switching can preclude the more intensive, careful listening that allows a person to reveal his feelings. . . . When a person is frustrated by not being heard, the remedy is for someone to listen, not to talk.
— Confusing listening with problem-solving: To listen is to understand, not to propose solutions. Helping to find solutions might be a next step, but it is not part of the listening process. In fact, it may even interfere with helpful listening.
— Indulging the need to correct errors: When people are expressing strong feelings, they often exaggerate or overstate the facts—sometimes in anger and with accusations. As we listen, we need to concentrate on hearing the message, rather than on correcting the facts. . . . Some people believe that all they need to do is get the other person to understand the facts. But when strong emotions are involved, the facts are often not the issue. Being too eager to correct errors and clarify facts may interfere with understanding.
— Blocking: It’s easy to misunderstand a message when we really don’t want to hear it. No matter how clearly it is stated, we can reject, reinterpret, or fail to comprehend an unpleasant message. . . . When we as listeners have already made up our minds about something, we may block out messages that do not fit our expectations. Disappointment, anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions can also block out even the clearest messages. Instead of projecting our feelings onto what someone is telling us, we need to concentrate on hearing the speaker’s feelings.